This traditional Tex-Mex herb from the Mediterranean is also known as coriander or Chinese parsley and is used in ethnic cooking throughout the world. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) is a cool-season annual that must be grown during the fall and spring in East Texas. When cilantro first introduced itself to my palette, I wasn’t fond of it. Now I can’t eat charro beans or homemade salsa without it.
Cilantro is a cool-weather plant that bolts (flowers), goes-to-seed, and dies when the weather is hot. For cilantro to be tender, leafy, and tasty, the weather must be mild. Cilantro can tolerate frosts but not hard freezes, so it should be planted now for a fall crop. Cilantro can either be direct seeded or planted as transplants, which are often available from garden centers and feed stores. After the seedlings have established themselves and formed their first true leaves, thin them to 4 inches apart (or plant your transplants 4 inches apart).
Cilantro requires at least eight hours of direct sun each day. It should be planted in rich, well-drained soil, either in the ground or in containers at least 12 inches in diameter, preferably larger. Small containers dry out quickly. Ideally, till several inches of organic matter into the soil and incorporate 2 pounds of a complete lawn fertilizer (15-5-10, etc.) per 100 square feet of bed or every 35 feet of row. In small plots use 2 teaspoons per square foot or foot of row. A slow-release fertilizer like Osmocote should be added to containers. The ideal pH for growing cilantro is 6.0 to 7.0.
If you are direct seeding, scatter cilantro seed on tilled soil that has been raked smooth. Gently rake the seed into the soil, making sure that it is no deeper than ¼ of an inch below the surface of the soil. Water gently and carefully (to avoid disturbing the seed); and keep the soil moist until germination (sprouting) occurs. Then reduce the frequency of watering so that the plants gradually get tougher. Transplants should be planted in holes dug the same size as the existing pot they are growing in. Gently firm the soil around them, being careful not to plant the transplant any deeper than it was growing in the pot. Water thoroughly with a water-soluble plant food such as Miracle-Gro following the label recommendation.
Cilantro is easy to grow and relatively pest free. To stimulate new tender foliage, keep it trimmed or harvested regularly, keep the flower heads cut off, and apply several teaspoons of a complete lawn fertilizer (15-5-10, etc.) per plant every two to three weeks or a water-soluble fertilizer such as Miracle-Gro every one to two weeks.
Cilantro is generally ready to harvest thirty-five to forty-five days from seeding. Harvest tender pest-free leaves that have just reached full size. Wash and use them immediately.